Freelance Project, Apple Watch, Gamification
I finished all process in this individual project.
Dec. '18 - Jan '19
Pen + Paper, Sketch, Invision, Principle
It was WatchOS human interface guidelines and played around with the apple watch a lot. Also, It’s not easy but super interesting to explore and make an integrated product. Therefore I made many attempts such as applying psychological theories into design and conducting rapid iterations. Finally I learned a lot from it., so I read through the
The ones with firefly marks are the main outputs of the stage.
Our target users are outdoor night-runners with smart watches.and for running and exercising is quite common among the runners which might lead them to easily give up, also the is an important concern for outdoor night-runners.
Facing these problems, I present Nitefly, an apple watch APP that provides interesting 'firefly-raising' experience to encourage them to achieve their running goal.
You can see your fireflies on your watch plate. They will become dim to indicate your recent laziness in running and exercising. Also, you can set yourself a reminder to run when receiving notifications.
Recommendation and suggestions are available for you to set challenging but attainable running goals. Tips from fireflies could also help you avoid danger and bad habits.
You can see fireflies being empowered by your energy power while running. Several milestones will help you to achieve your running goal step by step. Every time they finished a stage, he will hear 'Ding' and feel the vibration.
The supporting APP will serve as an additional tool that enables you to see safety situation nearby and collect recommended routes to run. Also, your achievements and settings are all included here.
Myself, as a running enthusiast, determined the core challenge:. Then starting from it, I explored the target audience and contexts.
I reviewed essays and reports to investigate social, economy and technology background for the ‘running’ culture and also, find existing problems/important issues for runners.
Night-running is an experience with many trivial but important details, also memorial bias about the feelings when doing sports is quite common. So to know users’ detailed tasks, problems and motivations, I furthered my qualitative research with anand a .
I followed 2 participants and observed their behaviors and asked them how/why questions about actions and feelings in the context. What's more, an abstractive level affinity map was made to summerize key insights about their characteristics, thoughts and habits.
I coded the responses from the survey and contextual inquiry. With these evidence, I developed personas and a user journey map. I defined my target users as two groups based on their running patterns:; . Then I seperately concluded pain points from their user journeys and emotion flows.
Meanwhile, I found that safety problems, laziness and unenjoyable running process are the main problems for a night-runner and they're discussed in design implications as well as important design principles.
Shown below is a summary of the important insights from former research and analysis. Remaining them in my mind all the way down, I made much effort to solve the design challenges and associate my design decisions to these implications and principles.
Among all the problems faced, I found that overcoming laziness and creating a more enjoyable running process are quite challenging. Therefore, I didand proposed the solutions to these design challenges. For each solution, I asked target users for their feedback.
The flow (aka. the Zone) is a mental status that describes the feeling of fully and when they are immersed in an activity. Such status is quite common and very useful in sports such as climbing and car racing. Therefore, I applied this theory to solve the challenge. The matrix below explains it in a good way.
©️ Mihály Csíkszentmihályi
Based on users' feelings, I positioned my persona characters in the graph and it provides us a direction to solve the unenjoyable problem.
The matrix helped me to dig deeper and understand why they cannot enter into the flow and be enjoyable. I concluded two important problems and figure out the solutions.
Laziness is a common phenomenon in terms of body training. How could I help people to develop running habits? I conducted a competitive analysis to know about others' solutions and their pros/cons.
I explored the existing fitness and behavior-changing apps and clustered them in three attributes: gamification, notification and social influence. Below are the insights that I found.
Notification may provide insufficient stimulation or too much pressure for people to overcome laziness. Hence they should not be used as the primary motivator (but could be used as a compensation). Also, to help them develop a good habit, I selected the gamification mechanism that enables users to cultivate something by makeing efforts.
To avoid distracting users from the value of running for themselves, I referred to one of the interviewees' words about her experience in feeding her cat and get an excellent inspiration about the gamification mechaism for night-running:
is a good way to help people overcome laziness! I created the user story to facilitate the ideation.
Runners could raise fireflies in their devices and empower them by running?
In the research, we found that what users need for safety is the #Los Angeles.on their running route. Street light and crime data are available on many city websites such as
I introduced a supporting phone APP to help people check the map about the safety situations around them. Also, safety messages are added to the phone APP.
I ran a feedback session to inquire about my target users’ opinions on this concept and the general design. With these ideas, I revised my design concept.
With the paper/pen drawings, I explained 5 main features to 6 different users. They think 3 of them are effective enough, but other 2 need improvement. Therefore, I revised the features based on the feedbacks.
Based on the feedbacks, I make some amendments and finished the user flow. The flows guided me to finish the wireframes of interfaces with multiple functions.
I created a wireframe with the user flow above and conducted a rapid testing session. The objective of it is to help me quickly modify the user flows and main interfaces. Based on the users' words, I made the first iteration. I listed 3 important ones below and other changes are reflected in hi-fi interfaces.
#Iteration 1: Put safety message at the most suitable place
Users think they might forget just ignore the safety message if they just open the app and not so ready to run. Therefore, I refined the user flow.
#Iteration 2: Less click to go running
Users feel that they need to click for so many times to start a simple running, therefore, I simplify the process and let users start running with a recommended goal easily.
#Iteration 3: Easier to understand and collect in the safety map.
In the feedback session, most of the users asked about the safety map, especially about the meaning of icons on the map and how to find a route. So i redesigned 2 interfaces.
Here's the hifi prototype and whole user flow. After wireframing, I conducted another casual feedback session, testing 3 users. Then based on their feedback I made some amendments of the interfaces and change the 'goal setting' flow.
Also, I built a Invision Prototype for the evlauation phase.
Nitefly went through usability testing and review it with design principles. The objective of it is to explore deeper through the interfaces and find usability issues so I incorporated think-aloud method and SUS questionaire. I invited 7 target users, 4 of them are irregular runner, the rest 3 are regular ones. Here’s a breif review of the process.
Nitefly is measured in 6 dimensions based on the data collected in SUS questionnaire. With the follow-up questions and user feedbacks collected in think-aloud session, I digged deeper into how these low scores come. Three main problems are defined and the result guided my to enter into another iteration phase.
In the test, we found that current running interfaces are a little bit confusing: the 'empowering' process should be more intuitive. When running, users won't often see the screen, but they still want to have more information besides vibration and fireflies.
Therefore, I visualized the progress to achieve the milestones. The round progress bar will keep being filled when users are running and every time it’s filled up, users will get vibration and ‘ding’ to indicate that they achieved a milestone and the fireflies will be lighted up gradually.
The round scroll bar imitates iPod Classic to help users easily see suggestions and select the goal. But the current size of it will cause fat finger issue based on users’ feedback. Therefore, by referring to watchOS human interface guidelines, I found that a different logic can better applied into this interface and also can create more space for round scroll bar.
#How to make AI more trustworthy?
In the test, some users asked: how could I know the route it recommends is safe? This made me think of the problem that how to make AI less like a black box and more trustworthy. Therefore, I reflected and reconsidered my design decisions to make AI more transparent to users.
I used natural languages to describe the route situation and emphasize on the ‘safety’ consideration in the title. Data source is added in the safety map to let people see the data underneath.
#"Don't let me think"
For the challenges generated by the AI, users feel that they need to see all the challenges and decide which one to take and if they cannot select one to get notified, they will probably forget about it. Therefore, I added more instructions to make the technology disappear and enable users to understand the challenges.
#Incorporate with suitable social elements
In usability testing, more than one users said they expect more social elements rather than just sharing the achievements. One big challenge is how to avoid too much social pressure, but still let them engage their friends in such an interesting gamified process.
#Design for different stages in running
People have different feelings during the running process, for example they feel more relaxed and easy at beginning than after running for a while. What can be a better solution for that difference?
It can be foreseen that users who do not run outdoor or at night can also be motivated by the fireflies. Also, some people prefer to bring phones to run. Therefore, it would be better if the product can cover a larger user group.
Recently I just started to read Nir Eyal's book called Hooked. His theory of habit changing could definitely be applied to runners and also help me modify current motivation Nitefly provides.